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Zyprexa ® (olanzapine)
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Zyprexa ® tablets (olanzapine): Pharmacokinetic properties
Olanzapine is well absorbed after oral administration, reaching peak plasma concentrations within 5 to 8 hours.
Olanzapine orodispersible tablet is bioequivalent to olanzapine coated tablets, with a similar rate and extent of absorption. Olanzapine orodispersible tablets may be used as an alternative to olanzapine coated tablets.
Olanzapine is well absorbed after oral administration, reaching peak plasma concentrations within 5 to 8 hours. The absorption is not affected by food. Absolute oral bioavailability relative to intravenous administration has not been determined.
The plasma protein binding of olanzapine was about 93% over the concentration range of about 7 to about 1000 ng/ml. Olanzapine is bound predominantly to albumin and α1-acid-glycoprotein.
Olanzapine is metabolised in the liver by conjugative and oxidative pathways. The major circulating metabolite is the 10-N-glucuronide, which does not pass the blood brain barrier. Cytochromes P450-CYP1A2 and P450-CYP2D6 contribute to the formation of the N-desmethyl and 2-hydroxymethyl metabolites; both exhibited significantly less in vivo pharmacological activity than olanzapine in animal studies. The predominant pharmacologic activity is from the parent, olanzapine.
After oral administration, the mean terminal elimination half-life of olanzapine in healthy subjects varied on the basis of age and gender.
In healthy elderly (65 and over) versus non-elderly subjects, the mean elimination half-life was prolonged (51.8 versus 33.8 hours) and the clearance was reduced (17.5 versus 18.2 l/hr). The pharmacokinetic variability observed in the elderly is within the range for the non-elderly. In 44 patients with schizophrenia >65 years of age, dosing from 5 to 20 mg/day was not associated with any distinguishing profile of adverse events.
In female versus male subjects, the mean elimination half-life was somewhat prolonged (36.7 versus 32.3 hours) and the clearance was reduced (18.9 versus 27.3 l/hr). However, olanzapine (5-20 mg) demonstrated a comparable safety profile in female (n = 467) as in male patients (n = 869).
In renally impaired patients (creatinine clearance <10ml/min) versus healthy subjects, there was no significant difference in mean elimination half-life (37.7 versus 32.4 hours) or clearance (21.2 versus 25.0 l/hr). A mass balance study showed that approximately 57% of radiolabelled olanzapine appeared in urine, principally as metabolites.
A small study of the effect of impaired liver function in 6 subjects with clinically significant (Childs Pugh Classification A (n = 5) and B (n = 1)) cirrhosis revealed little effect on the pharmacokinetics of orally administered olanzapine (2.5 – 7.5 mg single dose): Subjects with mild to moderate hepatic dysfunction had slightly increased systemic clearance and faster elimination half-time compared to subjects with no hepatic dysfunction (n = 3). There were more smokers among subjects with cirrhosis (4/6; 67 %) than among subjects with no hepatic dysfunction (0/3; 0 %).
In smoking subjects with mild hepatic dysfunction, mean elimination half-life (39.3 hours) was prolonged and clearance (18.0 l/hr) was reduced analogous to non-smoking healthy subjects (48.8 hours and 14.1 l/hr, respectively).
In non-smoking versus smoking subjects (males and females), the mean elimination half-life was prolonged (38.6 versus 30.4 hours) and the clearance was reduced (18.6 versus 27.7 l/hr).
The plasma clearance of olanzapine is lower in elderly versus young subjects, in females versus males, and in non-smokers versus smokers. However, the magnitude of the impact of age, gender, or smoking on olanzapine clearance and half-life is small in comparison to the overall variability between individuals.
In a study of Caucasians, Japanese, and Chinese subjects, there were no differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters among the three populations.
Adolescents (ages 13 to 17 years): The pharmacokinetics of olanzapine are similar between adolescents and adults. In clinical studies, the average olanzapine exposure was approximately 27% higher in adolescents. Demographic differences between the adolescents and adults include a lower average body weight and fewer adolescents were smokers. Such factors possibly contribute to the higher average exposure observed in adolescents.
Zyprexa [Summary of Product Characteristics]. Utrecht, The Netherlands: Eli Lilly Nederland B.V.
Date of Last Review: 08 February 2022